Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC): The Union Cabinet has approved India’s updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to be communicated to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Key Points about the Updated NDC:
- The updated NDC seeks to enhance India’s contributions in strengthening global response to the threat of climate change, as agreed under the Paris Agreement.
- This in turn will help India usher in low emissions growth pathways.
- On the basis of the UNFCCC's principles and provisions, it would also safeguard the nation's interests and future development needs.
- Updated NDC translates the ‘Panchamrit’ into enhanced climate targets.
- India at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Glasgow, United Kingdom had expressed to intensify its climate action by presenting to the world five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action.
- The update is also a step towards achieving India’s long term goal of reaching net-zero by 2070.
- According to the updated NDC, India has pledged to reduce Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45% by 2030 as compared to 2005 level.
- It also seeks to attain a cumulative electric power installed capacity of 50% from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
- Furthermore, it aims to achieve a total installed electric power capacity of 50% from non-fossil fuel-based energy sources by 2030.
- The updated NDC reads "To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation, including through a mass movement for ‘LIFE’– ‘Lifestyle for Environment’ as a key to combating climate change".
- India’s updated NDC has been prepared after carefully considering our national circumstances and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC).
The updated NDC will be implemented over the 2021-2030 period through programmes and schemes of relevant ministries and departments and with support from states and union territories.
Earlier, on October 2, 2015, India had submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to UNFCCC.
The 2015 NDC comprised eight goals; three of these have quantitative targets upto 2030 namely-
- Cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil sources to reach 40%.
- To reduce the emissions intensity of GDP by 33 to 35 percent compared to 2005 levels.
- To create additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover.
What are Nationally determined contributions?
- A nationally determined contribution (NDC) or intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) is a non-binding national plan highlighting climate change mitigation, including climate-related targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
- Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are at the heart of the Paris Agreement and the achievement of these long-term goals.
- These plans also include policies and measures governments aim to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement.
- The Paris Agreement requests each country to outline and communicate their post-2020 climate actions, known as their NDCs.
- NDCs are the first greenhouse gas targets under the UNFCCC that apply equally to both developed and developing countries.
All countries that were parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were asked to publish their intended nationally determined contributions at the 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Warsaw, Poland, in November 2013.
After the Paris Agreement entered into force in 2016, the INDCs became the first NDC when a country ratified the agreement unless it decided to submit a new NDC at the same time.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):
- The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is another projected legally binding agreement produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Earth Summit 1992.
COP 21 of the UNFCCC:
During the COP 21 of the UNFCCC, in which the Paris Agreement was signed. The following INDCs was submitted:
- China: targeted a 60-65% reduction of greenhouse gases emitted.
- European Union: Sough to reduce greenhouse gases by 40%
- India: Submitted a target of 33-35% per unit of GDP
- United States: aimed to reduce greenhouse gases by 26-28%
What are the key key elements and focus areas of India's INDC?
The key elements and focus areas of India's INDC are as follows:
- Reducing Emission intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
- Increasing the Share of Non-Fossil Fuel Based Electricity - To achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- Sustainable Lifestyles - To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.
- Cleaner Economic Development - To adopt a climate friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of economic development.
- Enhancing Carbon Sink (Forests) - To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
- Adaptation - To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.
- Technology Transfer and Capacity Building - To build capacities, create domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.
- Mobilizing Finance - To mobilize domestic and new & additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.